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Presentation on theme: "Unit 10 WANs Chapters NT2640.U10.PS1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10 WANs Chapters 27-29 NT2640.U10.PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 1

2 Class Agenda 11/21/15Learning ObjectivesFinal Exam is in the next classUnit 9: Discussions and VideoLab Activities will be done in class.Assignments will be given in class.Break Times. 10 Minutes break in every 1 Hour.Note: Submit all Assignment and labs due today.

3 In this unit, students will demonstrate an:
ObjectivesIn this unit, students will demonstrate an:Understanding the WAN Point-to-Point Connections and ProtocolsUnderstanding of Frame Relay Concepts, Configuration, and Troubleshooting StepsIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 3

4 Point-to-Point WANs Chapter 27 NT2640.U10.PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 44

5 WAN types include the following: Point-to-Point Circuit Switching
Packet SwitchingIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 5

6 Point-to-PointA point-to-point connection is a single, pre-established path from the customer's network through a carrier network, such as a telco, to a customer's remote networkA point-to-point line is usually leased from a carrier and thus is often called a leased line.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 6

7 A circuit switching network allows data connections end points
A circuit switched network uses a dedicated connection between sitesIt is ideal for transmitting data that must arrive quickly in the order it is sentData is sent in a real time.Mostly for analog dataIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 7

8 Packet SwitchingA packet switched network allows data to be broken up into packets and sent across the shared resourcesPackets are transmitted along the most efficient route to the destinationPacket switching is ideal for transmitting data that can handle transmission delays, as is often the case with Web pages and .IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 8

9 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP):Used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial, synchronous serial (dial up), and ISDN.Supports multiple Network layer protocols, including IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and numerous othersOptional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3-way authentication).IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 9

10 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
It supports multilink connections, load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links.It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors.It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number, the link is looped.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 10

11 PPP protocolsPPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link.Link Control Protocol (LCP).The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and tearing down the PPP link.Network Control Protocol (NCP) The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP, IPX, or AppleTalk)IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 11

12 PPP ConceptsPPP provides several basic but important functions that are useful on a leased line that connects two devices, as reviewed in the following list:Definition of a header and trailer that allows delivery of a data frame over the linkSupport for both synchronous and asynchronous linksA protocol type field in the header, allowing multiple Layer 3 protocols to pass over the same linkBuilt-in authentication tools: Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)Control protocols for each higher-layer protocol that rides over PPP, allowing easier integration and support of those protocolsIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 12

13 The PPP Protocol FieldOne of the more important features included in the PPP standard, but not in the HDLC standard, is the protocol field.The protocol field identifies the type of packet inside the frame. When PPP was created, this field allowed packets from the many different Layer 3 protocols to pass over a single link.Today, the protocol type field still provides the same function, even for the support of two different versions of IP (IPv4 and IPv6).PPP defines a set of Layer 2 control messages that perform various link control functions. These control functions fall into two main categories:Those needed regardless of the Layer 3 protocol sent across the linkThose specific to each Layer 3 protocolIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 13

14 PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP)
.PPP LCP FeaturesFunctionLCP FeatureDescriptionLooped link detectionMagic numberDetects if the link is looped, and disables the interface, allowing rerouting over a working route.Error detectionLink Quality Monitoring (LQM)Disables an interface that exceeds an error percentage threshold, allowing rerouting over better routes.Multilink supportMultilink PPPLoad-balances traffic over multiple parallel links.AuthenticationPAP and CHAPExchanges names and passwords so that each device can verify the identity of the device on the other end of the link.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 14

15 Basic PPP Configuration
VIDEOIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 15

16 High Level Data Link Control
“Wide Area Networks” introduced the main concepts of HDLC. Briefly, HDLC acts like PPP in many ways.It works on point-to-point serial links. It adds both a header and trailer when encapsulating IP packets, and includes an FCS field in the trailer.And because HDLC and PPP differ, the two routers on both ends of the link must use the same WAN data link protocol (either HDLC or PPP).Because Cisco IOS defaults to use HDLC on serial interfaces, you need to understand it better.However, before leaving the topic of WAN configuration, you should know a little more about HDLC configuration.IOS defaults to use HDLC as the data link protocol, so there are no required commands that relate to Layer 2.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 16

17 Frame Relay Concepts Chapter 28 NT2640-U10-PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 1717

18 Frame RelayFrame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality, digital lines. Frame-relay networks:Provide error detection but not error recovery. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets.Can provide data transfer up to 1.54 Mbps.Have a variable packet size (called a frame).Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs.Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K, T-1, T-3).Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI modelIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 18

19 Frame Relay OverviewFrame Relay networks provide more features and benefits than simple point-to-point WAN links, but to do that, Frame Relay protocols are more detailed.For example, Frame Relay networks are multiaccess networks, which means that more than two devices can attach to the network, similar to LANs. Unlike with LANs, you cannot send a data link layer broadcast over Frame Relay.Therefore, Frame Relay networks are called nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks.Also, because Frame Relay is multiaccess, it requires the use of an address that identifies to which remote router each frame is addressed.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 19

20 Components of Frame Relay
A leased line is installed between the router and a nearby Frame Relay switch; this link is called the access link.To ensure that the link is working, the device outside the Frame Relay network, called the data terminal equipment (DTE), exchanges regular messages with the Frame Relay switch.These keepalive messages, along with other messages, are defined by the Frame Relay Local Management Interface (LMI) protocol.The routers are considered DTE, and the Frame Relay switches are data communications equipment (DCE).IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 20

21 Frame Relay Terms and Concepts Term Description Virtual circuit (VC)
A logical concept that represents the path that frames travel between DTEs. VCs are particularly useful when you compare Frame Relay to leased physical circuits.Permanent virtual circuit (PVC)A predefined VC. A PVC can be equated to a leased line in concept.Switched virtual circuit (SVC)A VC that is set up dynamically when needed. An SVC can be equated to a dial connection in concept.Data terminal equipment (DTE)DTEs are connected to a Frame Relay service from a telecommunications company. They typically reside at sites used by the company buying the Frame Relay service.Data communications equipment (DCE)Frame Relay switches are DCE devices. DCEs are also known as data circuit-terminating equipment. DCEs are typically in the service provider’s network.Access linkThe leased line between the DTE and DCE.Access rate (AR)The speed at which the access link is clocked. This choice affects the connection’s price.Committed Information Rate (CIR)The speed at which bits can be sent over a VC, according to the business contract between the customer and provider.Data-link connection identifier (DLCI)A Frame Relay address used in Frame Relay headers to identify the VC.Nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA)A network in which broadcasts are not supported, but more than two devices can be connected.Local Management Interface (LMI)The protocol used between a DCE and DTE to manage the connection. Signaling messages for SVCs, PVC status messages, and keepalives are all LMI messages.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 21

22 Frame Relay StandardsThe definitions for Frame Relay are contained in documents from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).The Frame Relay Forum a vendor consortium, originally defined several Frame Relay specifications, many of which predate the original ITU and ANSI specifications, with the ITU and ANSI picking up many of the forum’s standards.(The Frame Relay Forum has disbanded, because its mission was complete.)IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 22

23 Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting Chapter 29 NT2640. U10
Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting Chapter NT2640.U10.PS1IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 2323

24 Frame Rely VIDEOIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 24

25 All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class.
Lab Activities.Complete 10 Lab in class.All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 25

26 Unit 10 assignment will be given in class.
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 26

Presentation on theme: "© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 IP Routing with Connected, Static, and RIP-2 Routes Chapters 12-14 NT2640.U4.PS1
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 4: Slide 1

2 Class Agenda 10/10/15 Learning Objectives
Unit 3: Presentation and DiscussionsChapter 12-14Discussion on Lab Activities.Discussion on Assignments.Break Times. 10 Minutes break in every 1 Hour.Note: Submit all Assignment and labs due today.

3 In this unit, students will demonstrate an:
ObjectivesIn this unit, students will demonstrate an:Understanding of the IP Routing Process including the IP Route Selection ProcessUnderstanding of IP Connected and Static Routes including Configuration and Verification StepsUnderstanding of the Definition of IP SubnetUnderstanding of the Distance Vector versus Link-State Routing ProtocolsUnderstanding of the Cisco IOS IP RIP v2 Configuration and Verification StepsUnderstanding of the Cisco IOS Administrative Distance Default Numeric Weights© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 4: Slide 3

4 IP Routing and Analyzing IP Subnets Chapters 12 & 13 NT2640-U4-PS1
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 4: Slide 44

5 IP Routing IP routing is also call called IP forwarding
It is the process use by routers to send packets at the network layer.IP routing protocols refers to the protocols the routers use to implement the routing tables© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 5

6 Figure 2.7 Hop-to-hop delivery

7 Figure 2.9 Source-to-destination delivery

8 IP Routing and Addressing
IP routing depends on the rules of IP addressing, with one of the original core design goals for IP addressing being the creation of efficient IP routing.IP routing defines how an IP packet can be delivered from the host at which the packet is created to the destination host.IP addressing conventions group addresses into consecutively numbered sets of addresses called subnets, which then aids the IP forwarding or IP routing process.This book uses the terms IP routing and IP forwarding as synonymous terms.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 8

9 Figure Default method

10 Routing Steps of a Router
1. For each received frame, it uses the data-link trailer frame check sequence (FCS) field to ensure that the frame had no errors; if errors occurred, discard the frame (and do not continue to the next step).2. Checks the frame’s destination data link layer address, and process only if addressed to this router or to a broadcast/multicast address.3. Discards the incoming frame’s old data-link header and trailer, leaving the IP packet.4. Compares the packet’s destination IP address to the routing table, and find the route that matches the destination address. This route identifies the outgoing interface of the router, and possibly the next-hop router.5. Determines the destination data-link address used for forwarding packets to the next router or destination host (as directed in the routing table).6. Encapsulates the IP packet inside a new data-link header and trailer, appropriate for the outgoing interface, and forward the frame out that interface.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 10

11 Example of the IP Routing Process
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 11

12 IP Routing Process “Of Previous Slide”
1. R1 checks the FCS, and the frame has no errors.2. R1 finds its own Fa0/0 interface MAC address in the frame’s destination MAC address field, so R1 should process the encapsulated packet.3. R1 discards the old data-link header and trailer, leaving the IP packet .4. R1 compares the destination IP address ( ) to R1’s routing table, finding the matching route shown in the figure, with outgoing interface Fa0/1 and next-hop router5. R1 needs to find the next-hop device’s MAC address (R2’s MAC address), so R1 looks and finds that MAC address in its ARP table.6. R1 encapsulates the IP packet in a new Ethernet frame, with R1’s Fa0/1 MAC address as the source MAC address, and R2’s Fa0/0 MAC address (per the ARP table) as the destination MAC address. R2 sends the frame.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 12

13 Figure 22.5 Simplified forwarding module in classless address

14 Example of the IP Routing Process
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 14

15 Example IP Addressing Design
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 15

16 IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route
Any router’s IP routing process requires that the router compare the destination IP address of each packet with the existing contents of that router’s IP routing table.Often, only one route matches a particular destination address. However, in some cases, a particular destination address matches more than one of the router’s routes.Some legitimate and normal reasons for the overlapping routes in a routing table© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 16

17 Routes to Directly Connected Subnets
A router automatically adds a route to its routing table for the subnet connected to each interface, assuming that the following two facts are true:The interface is in a working state—in other words, the interface status in the show interfaces command lists a line status of up and a protocol status of up.The interface has an IP address assigned, either through the ip address interface subcommand or by using DHCP client services.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 17

18 show ip routeThe show ip route command confirms an IP address is added a route to routing table.no ip subnet-zero command configured on a router, enable a router rejects any ip address command that uses an address/mask combination for the zero subnet.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 18

19 Static RoutesRouters use three main methods to add routes to their routing tables: connected routes, static routes, and dynamic routing protocols.Routers always add connected routes when interfaces have IP addresses configured and the interfaces are up and working.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 19

20 Classful and Classless Routing
Cisco routers have two configurable options for how a router uses an existing default route: classless routing and classful routing.Classless routing causes a router to use its default routes for any packet that does not match some other route.Classful routing places one restriction on when a router can use its default route, resulting in cases in which a router has a default route but the router chooses to discard a packet rather than forwarding the packet based on the default route.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 20

21 Comparing the Use of the Terms Classless and Classful
As Applied ToClassfulClasslessAddressesAddresses have three parts: network, subnet, and host.Addresses have two parts: subnet or prefix, and host.Routing protocolsRouting protocol does not advertise masks nor support VLSM; RIP-1 and IGRP.Routing protocol does advertise masks and support VLSM; RIP-2, EIGRP, OSPF.Routing (forwarding)IP forwarding process is restricted in how it uses the default route.IP forwarding process has no restrictions on using the default route.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 21

22 Chapter 13 Analyzing Existing Subnets
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 4: Slide 22

23 Key pieces of information about the subnet: The subnet ID
IP Packet RoutingKey pieces of information about the subnet:The subnet IDThe subnet broadcast addressThe subnet’s range of usable unicast IP addresses© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 23

24 Defining a SubnetAn IP subnet is a subset of a classful network, created by choice of some network engineer.However, that engineer cannot pick just any arbitrary subset of addresses; instead, the engineer must follow certain rules, like the following:The subnet contains a set of consecutive numbers The subnet holds 2H numbers, where H is the number of host bits defined by the subnet maskTwo special numbers in the range cannot be used as IP addresses:The first (lowest) number acts as an identifier for the subnet (subnet ID)The last (highest) number acts as a subnet broadcast addressThe remaining addresses, whose values sit between the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address, are used as unicast IP addresses© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 24

25 Address Structure: Class B Network, /18 Mask
All four subnets will have the structure shown in the figure, so all four subnets will have 214 – 2 host addresses.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 25

26 Subnet ID ConceptsA subnet ID is simply a number used to succinctly represent a subnet.When listed along with its matching subnet mask, the subnet ID identifies the subnet, and can be used to derive the subnet broadcast address and range of addresses in the subnet.Rather than having to write down all these details about a subnet, you simply need to write down the subnet ID and mask, and you have enough information to fully describe the subnet.The subnet ID appears in many places, but it is seen most often in IP routing tables.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 26

27 Summary of Subnet ID Key Facts
DefinitionA number that represents the subnetNumeric valueFirst (smallest) number in the subnetLiteral synonymsSubnet number, subnet address, prefix, resident subnetCommon-use synonymsNetwork, network ID, network number, network addressTypically seen in…Routing tables, documentation© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 27

28 The Subnet Broadcast Address
The subnet broadcast address has two main roles: to be used as a destination IP address for the purpose of sending packets to all hosts in the subnet, and as a means to find the high end of the range of addresses in a subnet.The original purpose for the subnet broadcast address was to give hosts a way to send one packet to all hosts in a subnet, and to do so efficiently.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 28

29 Binary Practice Problems
To find the subnet ID using binary math. The following written process summarizes those steps in written form for easier reference and practice:Step 1. Convert the mask to prefix format to find the length of the prefix (/P) and the length of the host part (32 - P).Step 2. Convert the IP address to its 32-bit binary equivalentStep 3. Copy the prefix bits of the IP addressStep 4. Write down 0s for the host bitsStep 5. Convert the resulting 32-bit number, 8 bits at a time, back to decimal© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 29

30 Subnet Analysis for Address 8.1.4.5, Mask 255.255.0.0
Prefix Length/16AddressSubnet IDBroadcast Address© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 30

31 Practice Problem 1Table Subnet Analysis for Subnet with Address , MaskPrefix Length/24AddressSubnet IDBroadcast Address© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 31

32 Practice Problem 2Table 13-5 Subnet Analysis for Subnet with Address , MaskPrefix Length/24AddressSubnet IDBroadcast Address© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 32

33 Practice Problem 3Table 13-6 Subnet Analysis for Subnet with Address , MaskPrefix Length/22AddressSubnet IDBroadcast Address© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 33

34 Practice Problem 4Table 13-7 Subnet Analysis for Subnet with Address , MaskPrefix Length/27AddressSubnet IDBroadcast Address© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 34

35 Analysis with Easy Masks
With three easy subnet masks in particular, finding the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address requires only easy logic and literally no math. Three easy masks exist:Class A:Class B:Class C:These easy masks have only 255 and 0 in decimal. In comparison, difficult masks have one octet that has neither a 255 nor a 0 in the mask, which makes the logic more challenging.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 35

36 Practice Problems: Find Subnet ID and Broadcast, Easy Masks
IP AddressMaskSubnet IDBroadcast Address123456© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 36

37 Reference Table: DDN Mask Values, Binary Equivalent, Magic Numbers, and Prefixes
Prefix, interesting octet 2/9/10/11/12/13/14/15/16Prefix, interesting octet 3/17/18/19/20/21/22/23/24Prefix, interesting octet 4/25/26/27/28/29/30Magic Number1286432168421DDN mask in the interesting octet192224240248252254255© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 37

38 Break 10 Min. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.
NT-2640 Advanced Networking: : Unit 1: Slide 38

39 Chapter 14 Routing Protocol Concepts and RIP-2 Configuration
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 4: Slide 39

40 Routing Protocol Overview
IP routing protocols have one primary goal: to fill the IP routing table with the current best routes it can find.The goal is simple, but the process and options can be complicated.Routing protocols help routers learn routes by having each router advertise the routes it knows.Each router begins by knowing only connected routes.Then, each router sends messages, defined by the routing protocol, that list the routes.When a router hears a routing update message from another router, the router hearing the update learns about the subnets and adds routes to its routing table.If all the routers participate, all the routers can learn about all subnets in an internetwork.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 40

41 RIP-2 Basic ConceptsRouters using RIP-2 advertise a small amount of simple information about each subnet to their neighbors.Their neighbors in turn advertise the information to their neighbors, and so on, until all routers have learned the information.It works a lot like how rumors spread in a neighborhood, school, or company:You might be out in the yard, stop to talk to your next-door neighbor, and tell your neighbor the latest gossip. Then, that neighbor sees his other next-door neighbor, and tells them the same bit of gossip—and so on, until everyone in the neighborhood knows the latest gossip.Distance vector protocols work the same way, but hopefully, unlike rumors in a real neighborhood, the rumor has not changed by the time everyone has heard about it.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 41

42 Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols
IP routing protocols fall into one of two major categories:Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP): A routing protocol that was designed and intended for use inside a single autonomous systemExterior Gateway Protocol (EGP): A routing protocol that was designed and intended for use between different autonomous systems© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 42

43 Routing Protocol Types/Algorithms
Class/AlgorithmIGPsDistance vectorRIP-1, RIP-2, IGRPLink-stateOSPF, Integrated IS-ISBalanced hybrid (also called advanced distance vector)EIGRP© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 43

44 Interior IP Routing Protocols Compared
FeatureRIP-1RIP-2EIGRPOSPFIS-ISClasslessNoYesSupports VLSMSends mask in updateDistance vectorNo1Link-stateSupports autosummarizationSupports manual summarizationProprietaryRouting updates sent to a multicast IP addressN/ASupports authenticationConvergenceSlowVery fastFast© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 44

45 Class Exercise IP Subnetting II Small Group Exercise in class
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 45

46 Lab Activities. Complete Unit 4 Lab in class.
All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 46

47 Assignment Unit 4 assignment will be given in class.
Reading Assignment: Read chapter 15 and 16© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 47

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