In the Blue House (2001), Meaghan Delahunt's debut – also published in the United States as In the Casa Azul: A Novel of Revolutionand Betrayal – is a meticulous reconstruction of the tragic fall of the Soviet Union from its utopian ideals through the eyes of its chief protagonists, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. The narrative begins with Trotsky and his wife Natalia arriving in Mexico after years of exile spent roaming around Europe. They have been invited by Diego Rivera, the renowned muralist and fellow traveller. He initially installs the couple at his home, the Casa Azul. While Rivera's guest, Trotsky begins a short-lived affair with Frieda Kahlo, Rivera's wife, and an equally renowned artist. The rest of the novel is a series of shifting panels, cutting back and forth in terms of both characters and chronology. We are slowly introduced to Nadezhda, Stalin's second wife, who later commits suicide, the poet Mayakovsky, also a suicide, Trotsky's assassin, Ramon, who at Stalin's bequest murders the former architect of the Russian Revolution with a pickaxe in 1940. Part romance and political biography, the novel has shades of Delahunt's former life as a political activist in her native Australia; once a firebrand – who dropped out of university at the behest of her local party – Delahunt worked as a spokesperson for workers at General Motors, a cause to which she dedicated eight years of her life. Relocating to Edinburgh 17 years ago, Delahunt began to write, devolving several years of research to this work – a fact which, as far as some reviewers were concerned, led to some of its greatest flaws. The novel was heavily criticised in the press for its cumbersome and often overbearing use of historical detail – as well as its melodramatic dialogue. Julie Myerson said that it plainly suffered from 'staged memories and forced flashbacks' and its 'touchy-feely phrases' (The Guardian, 21 April 2001). Nevertheless, In the Blue House was awarded the prestigious Commonwealth Writers Prize in 2002.
While the search for political and idealistic purity is at the heart of In the Blue House, the focus shifts to spirituality for her follow-up, The Red Book (2008). The prologue hints at Delahunt's attempt to make this a very visual work:
'She chooses the photographs, places them in an album and binds them in red fabric. The photographs speak of India, of different people and places; they span continents and time. To touch an album is to put it back into motion; to turn the pages is an ongoing story.'
The picture which sets this story in motion is by Raghu Rai, the photographer who made his shot of a dead child's head half-submerged in dirt the iconic emblem of the Bhopal disaster – the gas spill at the Union Carbide factory that killed thousands of people in 1984. Thus, Delahunt constructs yet another complex narrative out of three chief protagonists: Françoise, an Australian photographer, Arkay, an alcoholic Scottish tourist turned Buddhist monk and Naga, who is Tibetan (and like Arkay is also a monk), a refugee turned house boy, who, while serving a family of Sikhs in Delhi – and saving their lives in the riots that followed Indira Gandhi's assassination by her Sikh bodyguards – also loses his family to the gas leak. The initial setting is a Delhi boarding house owned by Surjit, a dispossessed member of the Punjabi aristocracy who lost his fortune during Partition. The repartee he has with Françoise towards the beginning of her stay is particularly poignant:
'I listened and nodded, but something in my face made Surjit sit up. He turned to me. "This may seem strange to you, I know."
I smiled and shrugged. "Well – where I come from, we don't have servants."
"But you used to!" he said, as his hands thumped the table.
"Your culture lost the art,"
I couldn't resist. "That was never my culture…"
"Oh?" said Surjit. "And in Australia? What was your culture?"
He was amused. "What line was your father in?"
"Director?" he asked.
Surjit sat back and smiled. I could see that my answer pleased him enormously. "Oh." he said. "After Lahore, I was in tea."'
Surjit later berates Françoise for being the 'typical' foreigner, the sort who only go to India in order to gloss over its disasters and fall in love with a monk. Considering Françoise wants to work in a project in Bhopal and later falls for Arkay, the monk, this is not far off the mark. Weaving together Indian politics, ethnic rivalries and, as always, well-researched glimpses into the lives of monks and the differences between the numerous castes around the sub-Continent, The Red Book is a far less convoluted affair than its predecessor. Its scope is more modest, its progression more leisurely, its characters less diffuse and scattered. In her review of the book, Kamila Shamsie praised its 'rich material', (The Guardian, 12 April 2008), and rightly highlighted the novel's chief strength: the depiction of Arkay's struggle to replace alcohol with a more meaningful stimulant: self-awareness. Unlike Françoise or Naga, Arkay's lines are short, witty, knife-edged and – more importantly – real. Ashley Tellis, however, criticised The Red Book for its 'exotic stereotypes' and its 'endless assemblages of local Indian colour…gas victims dying, hijras, Indian trains, the weather …' (The Hindu, 19 June 2010).
Delahunt's second novel was short-listed for various prizes, including the Saltire Society Scottish Book of the Year Award, the Clare Maclean Prize and the Scottish Arts Council Book Award. Delahunt's third novel, To The Island, was published by Granta in 2011. It is set in present-day Greece and features a woman in search for her father, alongside the backdrop of the complicated legacy of Greece's rule by a military junta in the 1970s. The novel is reputedly inspired by a year-long stay the author had in the country nearly a decade ago. Delahunt currently teaches fiction at the University of St Andrews.
André Naffis-Sahely, 2010
"St. Andrew's University" redirects here. For other universities, see St. Andrews University (disambiguation).
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the LatinSancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a Britishpublicresearch university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world (following Oxford and Cambridge Universities). St Andrews was founded between 1410 and 1413, when the AvignonAntipope Benedict XIII issued a papal bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy.
St Andrews is made up of a variety of institutions, comprising three colleges (United College (a union of St Salvator's and St Leonard's Colleges)), St Mary's College, and St Leonard's College), the last named being a non-statutory revival of St Leonard's as a post-graduate society. There are 18 academic schools organised into four faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two terms, Martinmas and Candlemas. In term time, over one-third of the town's population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: over 135 nationalities are represented with 45% of its intake from countries outside the UK; about one-eighth of the students are from the rest of the EU and the remaining third are from overseas — 15% from North America alone. The university's sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, May Dip, and the wearing of distinctive academic dress.
It is consistently ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom in all national league tables, behind Oxbridge.The Guardian ranks first in the United Kingdom the Schools of Physics and Astronomy, International Relations, Computer Science, Geography, English and Mathematics, whilst The Times and Sunday Times ranks the Schools of English, Management, Philosophy, Anatomy and Physiology and Middle Eastern and African Studies first and the Complete University Guide ranks Management, Divinity and Middle Eastern and African Studies first. The Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking names St Andrews among the world's Top 50 universities for Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities. St Andrews has the highest student satisfaction (joint first) amongst all multi-faculty universities in the United Kingdom.
St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Recent alumni include the former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond; former Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon; HM British Ambassador to China Barbara Woodward; United States Ambassador to Hungary Colleen Bell; Olympic cycling gold medalist Chris Hoy; and royals Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. Six Nobel Laureates are among St Andrews' alumni and former staff: two in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine, and one each in Peace and Literature.
Main article: History of the University of St Andrews
The university was founded in 1410 when a group of Augustinianclergy, driven from the University of Paris by the Avignon schism and from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge by the Anglo-Scottish Wars, formed a society of higher learning in St Andrews, which offered courses of lectures in divinity, logic, philosophy, and law. A charter of privilege was bestowed upon the society of masters and scholars by the Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw, on 28 February 1411. Wardlaw then successfully petitioned the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII to grant the school university status by issuing a series of papal bulls, which followed on 28 August 1413.King James I of Scotland confirmed the charter of the university in 1432. Subsequent kings supported the university with King James V "confirming privileges of the university" in 1532.
A college of theology and arts called St John's College was founded in 1418 by Robert of Montrose and Lawrence of Lindores. St Salvator's College was established in 1450, by Bishop James Kennedy.St Leonard's College was founded in 1511 by Archbishop Alexander Stewart, who intended it to have a far more monastic character than either of the other colleges. St John's College was refounded by Cardinal James Beaton under the name St Mary's College in 1538 for the study of divinity and law. It was intended to encourage traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to the emerging Scottish Reformation, but once Scotland had formally split with the Papacy in 1560, it became a teaching institution for Protestant clergy. Some university buildings that date from this period are still in use today, such as St Salvator's Chapel, St Leonard's College Chapel and St Mary's College quadrangle. At this time, the majority of the teaching was of a religious nature and was conducted by clerics associated with the cathedral.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the university had mixed fortunes and was often beset by civil and religious disturbances. In a particularly acute depression in 1747, severe financial problems triggered the dissolution of St Leonard's College, whose properties and staff were merged into St Salvator's College to form the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard. Throughout this period student numbers were very low; for instance, when Samuel Johnson visited the university in 1773, the university had fewer than 100 pupils, and was in his opinion in a steady decline. He described it as "pining in decay and struggling for life". The poverty of Scotland during this period also damaged St Andrews, as few were able to patronise the university and its colleges, and with state support being improbable, the income they received was scarce.
In the second half of the 19th century, pressure was building upon universities to open up higher education to women. In 1876, the University Senate decided to allow women to receive an education at St Andrews at a level roughly equal to the Master of Arts degree that men were able to take at the time. The scheme came to be known as the 'L.L.A. examination' (Lady Literate in Arts). It required women to pass five subjects at an ordinary level and one at honours level and entitled them to hold a degree from the university. In 1889 the Universities (Scotland) Act made it possible to formally admit women to St Andrews and to receive an education equal to that of male students. Agnes Forbes Blackadder became the first woman to graduate from St Andrews on the same level as men in October 1894, gaining her MA. She entered the university in 1892, making St Andrews the first university in Scotland to admit female undergraduates on the same level as men. In response to the increasing number of female students attending the university, the first women's hall was built in 1896 and was named University Hall.
Up until the start of the 20th century, St Andrews offered a traditional education based on classical languages, divinity and philosophical studies, and was slow to embrace more practical fields such as science and medicine that were becoming more popular at other universities. In response to the need for modernisation and in order to increase student numbers and alleviate financial problems, the university merged with University College, Dundee in 1897, which had a focus on scientific and professional subjects. After the incorporation of University College Dundee, St Andrews' various problems generally receded. Of note is that, up until 1967, many students who obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews had in fact spent most, and sometimes all, of their undergraduate career based in Dundee.
As the 20th century progressed, it became increasingly popular among the Scottish upper classes to send their children to the country's oldest higher learning institution, and the university's student population rose sharply.[tone] This revival has been maintained to the present day.[tone] Despite this, there have been some notable changes. In 1967, the union with University College Dundee ended, when that College became an independent institution under the name of the University of Dundee. As a result of this, St Andrews lost its capacity to provide degrees in many areas such as Law, Accountancy, Dentistry and Engineering, while it also lost the right to confer the undergraduate medical degree MBChB. However, the university has prospered in other ways.[tone] In 1972, the College of St Leonard was reconstituted as a postgraduate institute.
Links with the United States
St Andrews' historical links with the United States predate the country's independence. One of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence attended (but did not graduate from) St Andrews. James Wilson was one of six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States and founder of the University of Pennsylvania Law School. Other prominent American figures associated with St Andrews include Scottish American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, who was elected Rector in 1901 and whose name is given to the prestigious Carnegie Scholarship, and Edward Harkness, an American philanthropist who in 1930 provided for the construction of St Salvator's Hall. American Bobby Jones, co-founder of the Augusta National Golf Club and the Masters Tournament, was named a Freeman of the City of St Andrews in 1958, becoming only the second American to be so honored, the other being Benjamin Franklin in 1759. Today a highly competitive scholarship exchange, The Robert T. Jones Scholarship, exists between St Andrews and Emory University in Atlanta.
Links with the United States have been maintained into the present day and continue to grow. In 2009, Louise Richardson, an Irish-American political scientist specialized in the study of terrorism, was drawn from Harvard to serve as the first female Principal and Vice Chancellor of St Andrews. She later went on to her next appointment as the Vice Chancellor to the University of Oxford.
Active recruitment of students from North America first began in 1984, with Americans now making up around 1 in 6 of the student population in 2017. Students from almost every state in the United States and province in Canada are represented. This is the highest proportion and absolute number of American students amongst all British universities. Media reports indicate growing numbers of American students are attracted to the university's academics, traditions, prestige, internationalism, and comparatively low tuition fees. The university also regularly features as one of the few non-North American universities in the Fiske Guide to Colleges, an American college guide, as a 'Best Buy'. St Andrews has developed a sizable alumni presence in the United States, with over 8000 alumni spread across all 50 states. Most major cities host alumni clubs, the largest of which is in New York. Both London and New York also host the St Andrews Angels, an alumni led angel investment network, which centres upon the wider university communities in both the United Kingdom and United States. St Andrews has also established relationships with other university alumni clubs and private membership clubs in the United States to provide alumni with social and networking opportunities. For example, alumni are eligible for membership at the Princeton Club of New York and the Algonquin Club in Boston.
In 2013, Hillary Clinton, former United States Secretary of State, took part in the academic celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the founding of the University of St Andrews. Clinton received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws and provided the graduation address, in which she said, "I do take comfort from knowing there is a long tradition of Americans being warmly welcomed here at St Andrews. Every year I learn you educate more than one thousand American students, exposing them to new ideas and perspectives as well as according them with a first class education. I’ve been proud and fortunate to hire a few St Andrews alumni over the years and I thank you for training them so well."
Governance and administration
Main article: Governance of the University of St Andrews
As with the other ancient universities of Scotland, the governance of the university is determined by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1858. This Act created three bodies: the General Council, University Court and Academic Senate (Senatus Academicus).
Main article: General Council of St Andrews University
The General Council is a standing advisory body of all the graduates, academics and former academics of the university. It meets twice a year and appoints a business committee to manage business between these meetings. Its most important functions are to appoint two assessors to the University Court and elect the university's chancellor.
The University Court is the body responsible for administrative and financial matters, and is in effect the governing body of the university. It is chaired by the rector, who is elected by the matriculated students of the University. Members are appointed by the General Council, Academic Senate and Fife Council. The President of the Students' Association and Director of Representation are ex officio members of the Court. Several lay members are also co-opted and must include a fixed number of alumni of the University.
The Academic Senate (Latin Senatus Academicus) is the supreme academic body for the university. Its members include all the professors of the university, certain senior readers, a number of senior lecturers and lecturers and three elected student senate representatives – one from the arts and divinity faculty, one from the science and medicine faculty and one postgraduate student. It is responsible for authorising degree programmes and issuing all degrees to graduates, and for managing student discipline. The President of the Senate is the University Principal.
Office of the Principal
The Principal is the chief executive of the university and is assisted in that role by several key officers, including the Deputy Principal, Master of the United College and Quaestor. The principal has responsibility for the overall running of the university and presides over the University Senate.
Main article: Rector of the University of St Andrews
In Scotland, the position of rector exists at the four ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh) – as well as the University of Dundee. The post was made an integral part of these universities by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1889. The Rector of the University of St Andrews chairs meetings of the University Court, the governing body of the university; and is elected by the matriculated student body to ensure that their needs are adequately considered by the university's leadership. Through St Andrews' history a number of notable people have been elected to the post, including the actor John Cleese, industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, author and poet Rudyard Kipling and the British Prime MinisterArchibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery.
The university encompasses three colleges, although their purpose is mainly ceremonial as students are housed in separate residential halls or private accommodations. United College has responsibility for all students in the faculties of arts, sciences and medicine, and is based around St Salvator's Quadrangle;St Mary's College has responsibility for all students studying in the Faculty of Divinity, and has its own dedicated site in St Mary's Quadrangle; and St Leonard's College, in its current incarnation, has responsibility for all postgraduate students.
Faculties and schools
The four academic faculties collectively encompass 18 schools. A dean is appointed by the Master of the United College to oversee the day-to-day running of each faculty. Students apply to become members of a particular faculty, as opposed to the school within which teaching is based. The faculties and their affiliated schools are:
- Faculty of Arts: art history, classics, economics, English, film studies, history, international relations, management, modern languages, philosophy.
- Faculty of Divinity: divinity.
- Faculty of Medicine: medicine.
- Faculty of Science: biology, chemistry, computer science, geography and geosciences, mathematics, physics and astronomy, psychology and neuroscience.
Certain subjects are offered both within the Faculties of Arts and Sciences, the six subjects are: economics, geography, management, mathematics, psychology and sustainable development. The content of the subject is the same regardless of the faculty.
The academic year at St Andrews is divided into two semesters, Martinmas and Candlemas, named after two of the four Scottish Term and Quarter Days. Martinmas, on 11 November, was originally the feast of Saint Martin of Tours, a 4th-century bishop and hermit. Candlemas originally fell on 2 February, the day of the feast of the Purification, or the Presentation of Christ. Martinmas semester runs from early September until mid-December, with examinations taking place just before the Christmas break. There follows an inter-semester period when Martinmas semester business is concluded and preparations are made for the new Candlemas semester, which starts in January and concludes with examinations at the end of May. Graduation is celebrated at the end of June.
Rankings and reputation
|Teaching Excellence Framework||Gold|
In a ranking conducted by The Guardian, St Andrews is placed 5th in the UK for national reputation behind Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial & LSE. When size is taken into account, St Andrews ranks second in the world out of all small to medium-sized fully comprehensive universities (after Brown University) using metrics from the QS Intelligence Unit in 2015. The 2014 Research Excellence Framework ranked St Andrews 14th in the UK, and first in Scotland, amongst multi-faculty institutions for the research quality (GPA) of its output profile. St Andrews was ranked 9th overall in The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance, and is a member of the 'Sutton 13' of top ranked Universities in the UK.
Nearly 86% of its graduates obtain a First Class or an Upper Second Class Honours degree. The ancient Scottish universities award Master of Arts degrees (except for science students who are awarded a Bachelor of Science degree) which are classified upon graduation, in contrast to Oxbridge where one becomes a Master of Arts after a certain number of years, and the rest of the UK, where graduates are awarded BAs. These can be awarded with honours; the majority of students graduate with honours.
In 2017, St Andrews was named as the university with the joint second highest graduate employment rate of any UK university (along with Warwick), with 97.7 per cent of its graduates in work or further study three and a half years after graduation. St Andrews is placed 7th in the UK (1st in Scotland) for the employability of its graduates as chosen by recruiters from the UK's major companies with graduates expected to have the best graduate prospects and highest starting salaries in Scotland as ranked by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2016 and 2017. An independent report conducted by Swedish investment firm, Skandia found that St Andrews is, despite its small undergraduate body, the joint-5th best university in the UK for producing millionaires. A study by High Fliers confirmed this by reporting that the university also features in the top 5 of UK universities for producing self-made millionaires. According to a study by the Institute of Employment Research, St Andrews has produced more directors of FTSE 100 companies in proportion to its size than any other educational institution in Britain.
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017 revealed that 24 of the 26 subjects offered by St Andrews ranked within the top 6 nationally with 10 subjects placing within the top 3 including English, Management, Philosophy, International Relations, Italian, Physics and Astronomy and Classics and Ancient History. In the 2018 Complete University Guide, 23 out of the 25 subjects offered by St Andrews rank within the top 10 nationally making St Andrews one of only four multi-faculty universities (along with Cambridge, Oxford and Durham) in the UK to have over 90% of their subjects in the top 10.The Guardian University Guide 2016 ranked Computer Science, Geography, International Relations and Divinity first in the UK. Chemistry, History, Philosophy, History of Art, Physics, English and Earth and Marine Science were ranked within the top three whilst Management, Classics and Mathematics placed within the top five. In the 2015-16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, St Andrews is ranked 46th in the world for Social Sciences, 50th in the world for Arts and Humanities and 74th in the world for Life Sciences. The 2014 CWTS Leiden rankings, which "aims to provide highly accurate measurements of the scientific impact of universities", placed St Andrews 39th in the world, ranking it 5th domestically. The philosophy department is ranked 14th worldwide (4th in Europe) in the 2015 QS World University Rankings whilst the graduate programme was ranked 17th worldwide (2nd in the UK) by the 2009 Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world.
|Offer Rate (%)||42.3||44.8||46.7||53.0||41.2|
|Average Entry Tariff||n/a||n/a||525||520||516|
The university receives applications mainly through UCAS and the Common Application with the latest figures showing that there are generally 12 applications per undergraduate place available. Overall, the university is one of the most competitive universities in the UK, with 2016-17 having an acceptance rate of 8.35% and offer rate of 22.5% for Scottish/EU applicants where places are capped by the Scottish Government. In 2017, the most competitive courses for Scottish/EU applicants were those within the Schools of International Relations, Management, and Economics and Finance with offer rates of 8.0%, 10.9% and 11.5% respectively. The standard offer of a place tends to require five best Highers equivalent to AAAAB, three best A-levels equivalent to AAA or a score of at least 38 points on the International Baccalaureate. Successful entrants have, on average, 525 UCAS points (the equivalent of just above A*A*AA at A Level) ranking it as the 5th highest amongst higher education institutions in the UK for the 2015 admissions cycle with The Telegraph naming it as the hardest university to gain admission into in Scotland.
The university has one of the smallest percentages of students (13%) from lower income backgrounds, out of all higher education institutions in the UK. Around 40% of the student body is from independent schools and the university hosts the highest proportion of financially independent students (58%) in the UK. The university participates in widening access schemes such as the Sutton Trust Summer School, First Chances Programme, REACH & SWAP Scotland, and Access for Rural Communities (ARC) in order to promote a more widespread uptake of those traditionally under represented at university. In the seven-year period between 2008 and 2015, the number of pupils engaged with annual outreach programmes at the university has increased by about tenfold whilst the number of students arriving at St Andrews from the most deprived backgrounds has increased by almost 50 per cent in the past year of 2015. The university has a slightly higher proportion of female than male students with a male to female ratio of 44:56 in the undergraduate population.
To commemorate the university's 600th anniversary the 600th Lecture Series was commissioned in 2011, which brought diverse speakers such as former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, naturalist David Attenborough and linguist Noam Chomsky to St Andrews.
As part of the celebration of the 400th establishment of the King James Library, the King James Library lectures were initiated in 2009 on the subject of 'The Meaning of the Library'.
The Andrew Lang Lecture series was initiated in 1927, and named for alumnus and poet Andrew Lang. The most famous lecture in this series is that given by J. R. R. Tolkien in March 1939, entitled 'Fairy Stories', but published subsequently as 'On Fairy-Stories'.
The computing Distinguished Lecture Series was initiated in 1969 by Jack Cole.
St Andrews has developed student exchange partnerships with universities around the globe, though offerings are largely concentrated in North America, Europe, and Asia. Exchange opportunities vary by School and eligibility requirements are specific to each exchange program.
In North America, the highly competitive Bachelor of Arts International Honours program, run in conjunction with The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, allows students studying Classical Studies, Film Studies, International Relations, English, History, or Economics to spend two years at each institution and earn a joint degree from both.The Robert T. Jones Memorial Trust funds the Robert T. Jones Jr. Scholarship, which allows select St Andrews students to study, fully funded, for a year at Emory University in Atlanta, and Western University and Queen's University in Canada. The Robert Lincoln McNeil Scholarship allows students to study at the University of Pennsylvania. One of the largest North American exchanges is with the University of California System, in which students can study at Berkeley, Los Angeles (UCLA), Santa Cruz (UCSC) and San Diego (UCSD). Other North American partners offering multiple exchanges include the University of Virginia, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Washington and Lee University, Elon University, and the University of Toronto. Some exchanges are offered within specific research institutes at St Andrews, rather than across entire Schools. For example, the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, within the School of International Relations, offers student exchanges in partnership with the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University.
St Andrews participates in the Erasmus Programme and has direct exchanges with universities across Europe. For example, in France exchanges are offered at the Sorbonne, Sciences Po, and University of Paris VI. In the Netherlands students can study at Leiden University and Utrecht University. Narrower exchanges include those with the University of Copenhagen, the University of Oslo, and Trinity College Dublin. Exchanges are also available for postgraduate research students, such as the opportunity for social scientists to study at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy.
More recently, St Andrews has developed exchanges with partners in Asia and Australia. Notable partners include the University of Hong Kong and Renmin University of China, National University of Singapore, and the University of Melbourne in Australia.
Buildings, collections and facilities
The University of St Andrews is situated in the small town of St Andrews in rural Fife, Scotland. The University has teaching facilities, libraries, student housing and other buildings spread throughout the town. Generally, university departments and buildings are concentrated on North Street, South Street, The Scores, and the North Haugh. The university has two major sites within the town. The first is the United College, St Andrews