Mass Communication Specialist Bibliography Chicago

MLA, APA, & CMS: How to Properly Format Your Papers

Knowing the Styles and When to Use Them

In academic writing, how you present your information (technically) is often seen as important as the ideas you are putting forth. Proper citing, quoting and referencing of source material allows you to convey your breadth of research in a language commonly shared by others in your discipline. Giving others a chance to review and compare your work under these established guidelines enables your instructors to better see the work on its own merits, opposed to getting sidetracked by technical inefficiencies.

You MUST follow the rules like every other student: this is not an area where you want to stand out for doing things your own way. Writing for any academic purpose carries with it certain expectations and formatting consistencies, and a failure to properly understand how or why you cite your sources in a specific way can have negative effects on your written projects and communications.

The Big Three: APA, MLA, and CMS

There are three main "Schools of Style" used to properly format an academic paper, referred to as APA, MLA, or CMS.

  • APA style: These are the official guidelines put forth by the American Psychological Association, now in its sixth edition. This is the preference of the social sciences, so if you are studying sociology, psychology, medicine, or social work you are going to know APA style.
  • MLA style: The Modern Language Association provides guidelines you will be familiar with if you are focused on the Humanities: so artists, English majors, and theatre students will know MLA as they have used this style now for more than half a century.
  • CMS style: These are the style guidelines put forth in the Chicago Manual of Style, now in its 16th edition.  CMS style is predominantly seen in the humanities, particularly with literature students and those who study advanced segments of history and/or the arts.

While these formatting methods will share many characteristics such as margins and spacing, how they attribute references to source materials is the main differentiator.  For example, APA lists "references" while MLA calls the same thing "works cited" - a small but important distinction that might actually affect your grade.

Typically, you are going to use one style for most of your classes and communications, but there is certainly the possibility that you'll need to know how to use any one of these three common styles. The good news is it is not hard to get up-to-speed on any one of them and use them properly.

Get the Latest Updates
Regardless of which style you are using, it is imperative to get the most recent version of the guidelines to ensure your paper is as accurate as it can be. Each of the sources have updated their guidelines multiple times over the years, so working with the current standards is goal one.

APA and MLA are the most common styles to use, but CMS is not unheard of - just not as common for undergrads. CMS is commonly used in traditional book publishing and academic publishing situations, so if you are doing post-graduate writing, it is good to know.

The main thing that seems to be changing in the rules for all of them is about the proper attribution of web-related sources, so you are going to want to re-check that you are working from the most recent versions of whichever style guide you need.

Beware the Pitfalls

The common mistakes being made in properly styling citations and references might be as simple as not downloading the most recent updates; however, it may also be a case where students are simply not understanding how to infuse referencing properly.

Common APA Mistakes
"One of the most common mistakes I see," stated Professor John Long, who has studied social science and has taught health care administration and career development at a college level for various universities for more than five years, "are errors in properly citing web references." Professor Long and his students - being in the social sciences - have never used anything except APA style. He is currently working on his own education specialist degree (Ed.S.) now at U of Missouri, which is half way to the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) degree.

He continues: "While some common APA formatting errors may be issues due to changes in updated guidelines (APA 5 vs. APA 6), there are other, perhaps more common instances where a student fails to properly reference the source materials within writing assignments. This is particularly true when citing content from the Internet. Understanding how to properly reference and cite source materials adds power to any student paper, because the papers can be used to show a proper understanding and blending of source ideas - a critical concept in higher learning."

"Some of the changes to the guidelines seem very dubious and meticulous," he continues, "but standards are there so an evaluator can assess the weight of the material without bias. Many of my students might complain about it, but the ones that succeed are the ones who are actively trying to use citing resources to their own argument's advantage."

Common MLA Mistakes
APA students are not the only ones who have common mistakes in formatting - as evidenced by the following insight offered from Dr. Margaret Walters of Kennesaw State University, where she and her students have used primarily MLA guidelines in their writing, editing and literature classes. Dr. Walters has taught a variety of undergraduate and graduate level writing courses at Kennesaw State University for over 15 years.

Dr. Walters said, "The most common problems I see with MLA style occur in the writing, meaning the text itself, not the bibliography or Works Cited...though there are often some problems to address there, too. In the text, the most common problems are:

  • putting a period before and sometimes after the parenthetical citation, as in: ".... and this point is made early on." (Smith 127).
  • placing the closing quotation mark after the citation in parenthesis instead of after the quote: " .... and this point is made early on (Smith 127)".
  • placing quotation marks inside commas and periods instead of after them:  Smith tells us that among the most important rules are the ones regarding use of commas", yet he does not explain how this happens". (127) [those writing British English use the opposite rule--quotation marks inside end punctuation]."

Dr. Walters continued: "In the Works Cited, the most common MLA-related problems are:

  • not alphabetizing (even though this is the easiest rule to follow)
  • mixing up MLA and APA style; e.g. using initials for first names when MLA says use full first names and middle initials
  • leaving off the place of publication - it should be New York: Penguin, 2009 but will instead say Penguin, 2009
  • not knowing rules for using quotations marks or when to underline/italicize

"Students get it right most of the time," Dr. Walters states. "I think the underlying problem is an unwillingness to use the style sheets, handouts, or even the MLA handbook.  If they use the resources offered, most students are not going to struggle to meet the guidelines."

Get More Help

Both Dr. Walters and Professor Long advise students to use strong and verifiable resources to make your formatting job easier. Both instructors advise checking out the OWL (Online Writing Lab) Resources offered by Purdue in addition to the links to the sites listed above.

The writing center at your own university may hold lots of great information and people to help you understand what to do in each situation you face. Not every situation calls for the same style guide, so checking with the experts on your campus is always a smart idea.

For a quick reference, you can also use the handy visual aids created by Capital Community College on MLA and APA styled papers: (http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/library/citing.htm) or look at the MLA vs. APA comparison chart created by the University Writing Center at Appalachian State University.

The Bottom Line

The reality is, depending on your discipline, there may be only one type of style that you need to use, ever. However, this is not saying the rules for how to properly cite resources and references is not going to continue to change and evolve over time. You will be held responsible for being current.

As a student or in post-college academic writing, you want your work to shine and to always show your best efforts. This means checking on the rules to properly style and format your papers. Use the links and information above to help ensure you are forever properly dotting your I's and crossing your T's according to the latest and greatest rules.

Robert C. McCormack Distinguished Service Professor of Entrepreneurship and Finance and the David G. Booth Faculty Fellow

Home page of Luigi Zingales

Published Works

"Understanding Trust." Paola Sapienza, Anna Toldra-Simats and Luigi Zingales; Economic Journal, 2013, 123(573), pp. 1313-32. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12036

"The Determinants of Attitudes toward Strategic Default on Mortgages." Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 2013, 68(4), pp. 1473-515. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jofi.12044

"Media Versus Special Interests." Alexander Dyck, David Moss and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Law and Economics, 2013, 56(3), pp. 521-53. 
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/673216

"Innovation and Institutional Ownership." Philippe Aghion, John Van Reenen and Luigi Zingales; American Economic Review, 2013, 103(1), pp. 277-304. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.1.277

"Economic Experts Versus Average Americans." Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; American Economic Review, 2013, 103(3), pp. 636-42. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.3.636

"The Emergence of Male Leadership in Competitive Environments." Ernesto Reuben, Pedro Rey-Biel, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2012, 83(1), pp. 111-17. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2011.06.016

"The Role of Trust in the 2008 Financial Crisis." Luigi Zingales; Review of Austrian Economics, 2011, 24(3), pp. 235-49. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11138-010-0134-0

"A New Capital Regulation for Large Financial Institutions." Oliver Hart and Luigi Zingales; American Law and Economics Review, 2011, 13(2), pp. 453-90. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aler/ahr001

A Capitalism for the People : Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity; Luigi Zingales; New York: Basic Books, 2012

"A Trust Crisis." Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; International Review of Finance, 2012, 12(2), pp. 123-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2443.2012.01152.x

"Learning to Live with Not-So-Efficient Markets." Luigi Zingales; Daedalus, 2010, 139(4), pp. 31-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/DAED_a_00040

"Trust and Finance."
 Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER Reporter, 2011, (2), pp. 16-19.
http://www.nber.org/reporter/2011number2/paola&luigi.html

"Who Blows the Whistle on Corporate Fraud?" Alexander Dyck, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; The Journal of Finance, 2010, 65(6), pp. 2213-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2010.01614.x

"A Market-Based Regulatory Policy to Avoid Financial Crises." Luigi Zingales; Cato Journal, 2010, 30(3), pp. 535.
http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj30n3/cj30n3-10.pdf

"Paulson's Gift." Pietro Veronesi and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Financial Economics, 2010, 97(3), pp. 339-68.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2010.03.011

"Comment on 'the Financial Crisis: An inside View'." Luigi Zingales; Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2009, (1), pp. 68-74.
http://muse.jhu.edu.proxy.uchicago.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_economic_activity/v2009/2009.1.swagel_sub01.html

"Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange?*." Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2009, 124(3), pp. 1095-131.
http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/qjec.2009.124.3.1095
"Are Elite Universities Losing Their Competitive Edge?" E. Han Kim, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Financial Economics, 2009, 93(3), pp. 353-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2008.09.007

"The Future of Securities Regulation." Luigi Zingales; Journal of Accounting Research, 2009, 47(2), pp. 391-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-679X.2009.00331.x

"Trusting the Stock Market." Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 2008, 63(6), pp. 2557-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2008.01408.x

"The Corporate Governance Role of the Media: Evidence from Russia." Alexander Dyck, Natalya Volchkova and Luigi Zingales; The Journal of Finance, 2008, 63(3), pp. 1093-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2008.01353.x

"Theft and Taxes." Mihir A. Desai, Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Financial Economics, 2007, 84(3), pp. 591-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2006.05.005

"What Has Mattered to Economics since 1970." E. Han Kim, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, 20(4), pp. 189-89.
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoh&AN=0879471

"Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?" Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, 20(2), pp. 1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/089533006777641031

"Gods and Mammon." Luigi Zingales; Global Agenda, 2006, 4(1), pp. 228-29.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=20261613

"Does Local Financial Development Matter?" Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2004, 119(3), pp. 929-69.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=13928934

"The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development." Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; American Economic Review, 2004, 94(3), pp. 526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/0002828041464498

"Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison." Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 2004, 59(2), pp. 537-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2004.00642.x

"Making Capitalism Work for Everyone." Raghuram G Rajan and Luigi Zingales; The Bank of America Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 2004, 16(4), pp. 101.

Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists : Unleashing the Power of Financial Markets to Create Wealth and Spread Opportunity; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004

"The Bubble and the Media," Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales, in P. K. Cornelius and B. Kogut: Corporate Governance and Capital Flows in a Global Economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 83-102

"Commentary on 'More on Finance and Growth: More Finance, More Growth? '." Luigi Zingales; Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 2003, 85(4), pp. 47-52.
http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/03/07/Zingales.pdf

"People's Opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes." Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Monetary Economics, 2003, 50(1), pp. 225-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00202-7

"The Price of Influence Peddling." Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Barron's, 2003, 83(40), pp. 41.
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=423846431&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=13392&RQT=309&VName=PQD

"The Great Reversals: The Politics of Financial Development in the Twentieth Century." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Financial Economics, 2003, 69(1), pp. 5-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-405X(03)00125-9

"The Corporate Governance Role of the Media," Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales, in R. Islam: The Right to Tell: The Role of Mass Media in Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2002, pp. 107-40

"Banks and Markets: The Changing Character of European Finance," Luigi Zingales and Raghuram Rajan, in V. Gaspar, P. Hartmann and O. Sleijpen: The Transformation of the European Financial System: Second Ecb Central Banking Conference. Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank, 2002, pp. 123 - 68
http://www.ecb.int/events/pdf/conferences/zingales_comp.pdf

"Financial Systems, Industrial Structure, and Growth." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2001, 17(4), pp. 467-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/17.4.467

"The Firm as a Dedicated Hierarchy: A Theory of the Origins and Growth of Firms." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2001, 116(3), pp. 805-51.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=5015013

"The Influence of the Financial Revolution on the Nature of Firms." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; American Economic Review, 2001, 91(2), pp. 206-11.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28200105%2991%3A2%3C206%3ATIOTFR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U

"The Influence of the Financial Revolution on the Nature of Firms." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Wirtschaftspolitische Blatter, 2001, 48(6), pp. 635-41.

"Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Not Valid Measures of Financing Constraints." Steven N. Kaplan and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2000, 115(2), pp. 707-12.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=3128105

"In Search of New Foundations." Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 2000, 55(4), pp. 1623-53.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28200008%2955%3A4%3C1623%3AISONF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L

"The Governance of the New Enterprise," Luigi Zingales and Raghuram Rajan, in X. Vives: Corporate Governance : Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 201-27

"The Eclipse of the U S Tire Industry," Raghuram Rajan, Paolo Volpin and Luigi Zingales, in S. N. Kaplan: Mergers and Productivity. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. 51-86
http://www.nber.org/chapters/c8649.pdf

"The Tyranny of Inequality." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Public Economics, 2000, 76(3), pp. 521-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2727(99)00095-X

"The Cost of Diversity: The Diversification Discount and Inefficient Investment." Raghuram Rajan, Henri Servaes and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 2000, 55(1), pp. 35-80.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28200002%2955%3A1%3C35%3ATCODTD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M

"Corporate Governance," Luigi Zingales, in P. Newman: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law. London: Macmillan Reference, 1998, pp. 497-503

"Why Do Companies Go Public? An Empirical Analysis." Marco Pagano, Fabio Panetta and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 1998, 53(1), pp. 27-64.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28199802%2953%3A1%3C27%3AWDCGPA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z

"Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry." Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 1998, 53(3), pp. 905-38.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28199806%2953%3A3%3C905%3ASOTFOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0

"Debt, Folklore, and Cross Country Differences in Financial Structure." Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; The Bank of America Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 1998, 10(4), pp. 102.

"Which Capitalism? Lesson from the East Asia Crisis." Raghuram G Rajan and Luigi Zingales; The Bank of America Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 1998, 11(3), pp. 40.

"Power in a Theory of the Firm." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1998, 113(2), pp. 387-432.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28199805%29113%3A2%3C387%3APIATOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C

"Financial Dependence and Growth." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; American Economic Review, 1998, 88(3), pp. 559-86.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199806%2988%3A3%3C559%3AFDAG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C

"Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints?" Steven N. Kaplan and Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1997, 112(1), pp. 169-215.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28199702%29112%3A1%3C169%3ADIFSPU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U

"Why do Companies Go Public? An Emperical Analysis," Marco Pagano, Fabio Panetta and Luigi Zingales, in M. Pagano and A. Röell: The Decision to Go Public and the Stock Market as a Source of Capital.Roma: Bancaria Editrice, 1996

"The Stock Market as a Source of Capital: Some Lessons from Initial Public Offerings in Italy." Marco Pagano, Fabio Panetta and Luigi Zingales; European Economic Review, 1996, 40(3-5), pp. 1057-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2921(95)00115-8

"Insider Ownership and the Decision to Go Public." Luigi Zingales; Review of Economic Studies, 1995, 62(3), pp. 425-48.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0034-6527%28199507%2962%3A3%3C425%3AIOATDT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O

"What Determines the Value of Corporate Votes?" Luigi Zingales; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1995, 110(4), pp. 1047-73.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28199511%29110%3A4%3C1047%3AWDTVOC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4

"What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data." Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; Journal of Finance, 1995, 50(5), pp. 1421-60.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28199512%2950%3A5%3C1421%3AWDWKAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8

"The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience." Luigi Zingales; Review of Financial Studies, 1994, 7(1), pp. 125-48.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0893-9454%28199421%297%3A1%3C125%3ATVOTVR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L

The Value of Corporate Control; Luigi Zingales; Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992.

Working Papers

Inefficient Provision of LiquidityOliver D. Hart and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series No. 17299; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w17299

Paulson's Gift; Pietro Veronesi and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series No. 15458; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15458

Innovation and Institutional Ownership; Philippe Aghion, John Van Reenen and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series No. 14769; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w14769

Procrastination and Impatience; Ernesto Reuben, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series no. 13713; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w13713

Social Capital as Good Culture; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series no. 13712; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w13712

Who Blows the Whistle on Corporate Fraud?; Alexander Dyck, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w12882; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12882

The Corporate Governance Role of the Media
Evidence from Russia
; Alexander Dyck, Natalya Volchkova and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. w12525; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12525

What Has Mattered to Economics since 1970; E. Han Kim, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w12526; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12526

The Cost of Banking Regulation; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w12501; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12501

Are Elite Universities Losing Their Competitive Edge?; E. Han Kim, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w12245; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12245

The Persistence of Underdevelopment: Institutions, Human Capital, or Constituencies?; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w12093; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12093

Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series ; no. w11999; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w11999

Trusting the Stock Market; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Papers Series no. 11648; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11648

Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series working paper no. 11005; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11005

Theft and Taxes; Mihir A. Desai, Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series working paper no. 10978; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/10978

Bureaucracy as a Mechanism to Generate Information; Walter Novaes and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 9763.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W9763

The Emergence of Strong Property Rights Speculations from History; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 9478.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://nber.org/papers/w9478

Banks and Markets : The Changing Character of European Finance; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 9595;; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/9595

People's Opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 9237; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w9237

Does Local Financial Development Matter?; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 8923.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://nber.org/papers/w8923

Private Benefits of Control : An International Comparison; Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 8711.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W8711

The Corporate Governance Role of the Media; Alexander Dyck and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 9309.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W9309

The Influence of the Financial Revolution on the Nature of Firms; Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 8177; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W8177

The Great Reversals : The Politics of Financial Development in the 20th Century; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 8178; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W8178

The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development; Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 7563.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W7563

In Search of New Foundations; Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 7706.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7706

The Firm as a Dedicated Hierarchy : A Theory of the Origin and Growth of Firms; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 7546.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W7546

The Governance of the New Enterprise; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 7958.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W7958

Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Not Valid Measures of Financing Constraints; Steven N. Kaplan and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series, no. 7659; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/7659

What Determines Firm Size?; Krishna B. Kumar, Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 7208.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7208

The Cost of Diversity: The Diversification Discount and Inefficient Investment; Raghuram G. Rajan, Henri Servaes and Luigi Zingales; National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no.6368; National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/6368

Efficiency and Distribution in Financial Restructuring : The Case of the Ferruzzi Group; Alessandro Penati and Luigi Zingales; Working paper series no. 466.; Chicago: Center for Research in Security Prices Graduate School of Business University of Chicago, 1997.

Corporate Governance; Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 6309.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6309

Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? : Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry; Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 6273.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6273

Power in a Theory of the Firm; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 6274.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6274

Corporate Ownership Structures : Private Versus Social Optimality; Lucian A. Bebchuk and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 5584.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5584

Financial Dependence and Growth; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 5758.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/5758

The Tyranny of the Inefficient : An Enquiry into the Adverse Consequences of Power Struggles; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 5396.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5396

Why do Companies Go Public? : An Empirical Analysis; Marco Pagano, Fabio Panetta and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 5367.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5367

Capital Structure Choice When Managers Are in Control : Entrenchment Versus Efficiency; Walter Novaes and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 5384.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5384

Do Financing Constraints Explain Why Investment Is Correlated with Cash Flow?; Steven N. Kaplan and Luigi Zingales; NBER Working Paper Series, no. 5267; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/5267

What do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data; Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales; NBER working paper series no. 4875.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w4875

Buying Versus Hiring : A New Theory of Mergers; Walter Novaes and Luigi Zingales; Working paper series no. 372;; Chicago: Center for Research in Security Prices University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, 1992.

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